Title Coffee May Have Beneficial Effects on the Periodontal Health of Adults
Clinical Question In adult patients, does coffee consumption have beneficial effects on periodontal health?
Clinical Bottom Line In adult males, coffee consumption may have positive effects during the maintenance phase of periodontal therapy and also be protective against periodontal bone loss.
Best Evidence  
PubMed ID Author / Year Patient Group Study type
(level of evidence)
25338270Machida/2014414 periodontitis patients undergoing maintenance following periodontal treatmentCross-Sectional Study
Key resultsCoffee consumption of ≥1 cup/day during the maintenance phase of periodontal therapy seems to have an inverse relationship with the presence of severe periodontitis. Furthermore, when coffee consumption is ≥1 cup/day, the odds ratio (OR) = 0.55 for the presence of severe periodontitis in the maintenance phase (p < 0.05).
24359164Ng/20141,152 dentulous males, starting mean age of 48 Prospective Cohort Study
Key resultsIn adult males, consumption of coffee may have beneficial effects against periodontal bone loss. Using data from the Cornell Medical Index questionnaire, participants who consumed > 6 cups of coffee or tea/day had significantly fewer teeth with alveolar bone loss (ABL) ≥ 40% over the 30-year course of study follow-up (P = 0.03). Using data from the Food Frequency Questionnaire, males who drank > 1 cup of coffee/day had significantly fewer teeth with moderate-to-severe ABL (≥ 40%) than males who drank no more than one cup per day (P = 0.02).
Evidence Search "Periodontitis"[Mesh] AND "Coffee"[Mesh]
Comments on
The Evidence
Validity: There is statistically significant data in both studies showing a positive correlation between coffee consumption and maintenance of periodontal health. The questionnaire used in the Machida study was not validated, and there may be possibility of recall bias due to self-reporting of coffee consumption. Also, the Machida study was done in an academic setting in Japan, and the results may not apply to the entire global population. The Ng study also could have issues with generalizability as the study focused only on non-Hispanic males. Also, it was an observational study, so no causality was shown. Strengths of the Ng study include the used of validated questionnaires, a large study population, controlling (during statistical analyses) for confounding variables, and follow-up time. Perspective: More research should be done on this topic, preferably in the form of randomized controlled trials, to verify this data.
Applicability With the ubiquity of coffee consumption in modern society, clinicians should be more familiar with the effects of this popular beverage on the periodontal health of their adult patients. According to the Ng study, higher levels of coffee consumption were not associated with harm to periodontal health.
Specialty (Public Health) (General Dentistry) (Periodontics) (Interprofessional CATs)
Keywords coffee, periodontal health, periodontitis
ID# 3051
Date of submission 04/26/2016
E-mail Zhout4@livemail.uthscsa.edu
Author Tao Zhou
Co-author(s) e-mail
Faculty mentor Georgiana S. Gross, MPH
Faculty mentor e-mail GROSSG@uthscsa.edu
Basic Science Rationale
(Mechanisms that may account for and/or explain the clinical question, i.e. is the answer to the clinical question consistent with basic biological, physical and/or behavioral science principles, laws and research?)
None available
Comments and Evidence-Based Updates on the CAT
None available