Title Application of Melatonin to Implant Sites Increases Osseointegration of Dental Implants in Animal Studies
Clinical Question For patients receiving implants, what is the effect of melatonin in implant sites on osseointegration of dental implants?
Clinical Bottom Line For patients receiving dental implants, there are not yet clinical studies to support the use of melatonin in implant sites to promote osseointegration.
Best Evidence  
PubMed ID Author / Year Patient Group Study type
(level of evidence)
19681939Guardia/201112 Beagle dogsLaboratory study
Key resultsFollowing 5 and 8 week treatment periods, addition of “melatonin significantly increased the inter-thread bone (p < 0.05) and new bone formation (p < 0.05) in comparison to control implants in both weeks. There were no significant increases in the bone-to-implant contact and peri-implant bone (p > 0.05).”
18298460Cutando/200812 Beagle dogsLaboratory study
Key resultsThe early response to lymphophylized powdered melatonin inserted in the bone hole was evaluated in the insertion of cylindrical screw implants in 12 Beagle dogs. Implant sites treated with melatonin were found to have increased bone density in both the peri and inter-implant sites (P<0.0001, P<0.05, respectively). Further, melatonin in the sites also increased the bone to implant contact (P<0.0001), as well as new bone formation (P<00001).
20455901Tresguerres/201210 New Zealand rabbitsLaboratory study
Key resultsThis study stated that, “trabecular area density was increased significantly in the melatonin group (8.68 ± 1.61 vs 4.02 ± 0.36; p < .05). Cortical area density was decreased significantly in the melatonin group (91.31 ± 1.6 vs 95.7 ± 0.5; p < .05). There was statistically significant increase in trabecular BIC in the melatonin group compared with the control group (24.61% ± 2.87 vs 13.62% ± 1.44; p < .01). Cortical BIC was decreased in the melatonin group, without statistical significance (71.08 ± 3.63 vs 76.28 ± 2.57; p = 0.31).”
Evidence Search ("melatonin"[MeSH Terms] OR "melatonin"[All Fields]) AND ("osseointegration"[MeSH Terms] OR "osseointegration"[All Fields]) AND implant[All Fields]
Comments on
The Evidence
All the above studies were limited in that they dealt only with animal models, no human studies have been published. These studies seemed to have adequate control measures when comparing the effects of powdered melatonin in the implant socket versus no treatment. A key concern with all of these studies was the limited timeline. The Cutando study observed the osseointegration following 2 weeks of healing time, the Tresguerres study collected histologic data following only 4 weeks of osseointegration, and the Guardia study evaluated at 5 and 8 week intervals. It will be necessary to garner long-term data regarding osseointegration of dental implants with melatonin application to determine if there is long-term significance.
Applicability Unfortunately, no studies involving humans have been carried out at this point to evaluate the effects of melatonin on osseointegration of dental implants. Clinical research is necessary before the application of melatonin in implant sites is a possibility for dental implant patients, including studies assessing the accurate measurement of ossification of implants as well as an analysis of the best route of administration of melatonin.
Specialty (General Dentistry) (Periodontics) (Prosthodontics) (Restorative Dentistry) (Interprofessional CATs)
Keywords Melatonin, implant, osseointegration
ID# 2608
Date of submission 01/07/2014
E-mail rockeyk@livemail.uthscsa.edu
Author Kelsey Anne Rockey
Co-author(s) Ellis Shwarts
Co-author(s) e-mail shwarts@livemail.uthscsa.edu
Faculty mentor Russel Reiter, PhD, MS
Faculty mentor e-mail reiter@uthscsa.edu
Basic Science Rationale
(Mechanisms that may account for and/or explain the clinical question, i.e. is the answer to the clinical question consistent with basic biological, physical and/or behavioral science principles, laws and research?)
None available
Comments and Evidence-Based Updates on the CAT
None available