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Title oral cancer Risk Is Higher If Betel Nuts Are Chewed With Tobacco Compared To Chewing Betel Nuts Without Tobacco
Clinical Question Is the risk of developing oral neoplasms with the use of betel nuts increased if betel nuts are chewed with tobacco compared to chewing betel nuts alone? (See Comments on the CAT below)
Clinical Bottom Line The oral mucosa sustains more genotoxic damage when betel nuts are chewed with the simultaneous use of tobacco products.
Best Evidence (you may view more info by clicking on the PubMed ID link)
PubMed ID Author / Year Patient Group Study type
(level of evidence)
#1) 18688850Thomas/2008197 cases and 1,282 controlsCase Control Study/ Systematic Review
Key resultsLeukoplakia was present in 11.7% of betel quid chewers that were also smokers. “In the nested case-control study of 197 cases and 1,282 controls, current betel chewing was associated with increased risk of leukoplakia with an adjusted odds ratio for current chewers of 3.8 (95% CI 1.7, 8.4) and in the heaviest chewers of 4.1 (95% CI 1.8, 9.1) compared to non-chewers.” Smokers were found to have a risk of leukoplakia with an odds ratio for smokers of 6.4 (95% CI 4.1, 9.9) and amongst heaviest smokers of 9.8 (95% CI 5.9, 16.4) when compared to non-smokers. The systemic review found 5 studies for betel nut chewing without tobacco in populations that controlled for smoking, the combined odds ratio was 7.9 (95% CI 4.3, 14.6) in betel quid chewers.
Evidence Search (("Areca/adverse effects"[Mesh]) and ("Leukoplakia, Oral/epidemiology"[Mesh] OR "Leukoplakia, Oral/ethnology"[Mesh] )) AND "Tobacco/adverse effects"[Mesh]
Comments on
The Evidence
The evidence was representative in that the study group was large and met the criteria of being a combination of betel nut chewers and tobacco users. Simultaneous use of both tobacco and betel nuts has an additive effect on oral neoplasms.
Applicability The subjects in this study were chosen and examined based on their way of life. This evidence is useful for dentists in tobacco use counseling. Betel chewers should be advised to quit or at least avoid using it with tobacco. The evidence is of practical use in patient populations from southeast Asia.
Specialty/Discipline (General Dentistry) (Oral Surgery) (Periodontics) (Dental Hygiene)
Keywords Betel Nuts, oral cancer, Tobacco
ID# 2224
Date of submission: 04/26/2012spacer
E-mail pateldh@livemail.uthscsa.edu
Author Devish H. Patel
Co-author(s) e-mail
Faculty mentor/Co-author Georgiana S. Gross, MPH
Faculty mentor/Co-author e-mail grossg@uthscssa.edu
Basic Science Rationale
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