ORAL HEALTH EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE PROGRAM
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Title Allicin-Containing Foods May Reduce Caries
Clinical Question Are foods containing allicin, which has antibacterial properties, effective in carries prevention?
Clinical Bottom Line Allicin-containing foods may reduce caries. Research has shown the anti-microbial affects of allicin-containing foods (i.e., garlic) on known oral pathogenic bacteria.
Best Evidence (you may view more info by clicking on the PubMed ID link)
PubMed ID Author / Year Patient Group Study type
(level of evidence)
#1) 25565751Chandrdas/2014210 dental studentsRandomized Controlled Trial
Key resultsA solution of 3% garlic extract resulted in a greater reduction (100%) of Streptococcus mutans count than either chlorhexidine gluconate (78.3%) or cetylpyridinium chloride (91.4%). Group III, which used the garlic extract, showed significant (P < 0.001) reduction in colony forming units of S. mutans. Group I, which used distilled water, also showed significant (P < 0.001) reduction in colony forming units of S. mutans.
#2) 18007101Fani/2007105 carious teeth (92 isolates of S. mutans; 28 were multi-drug resistant strains)Laboratory study
Key resultsThe study showed the inhibitory effect of garlic extract on 28 multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains and 28 non-multi drug resistant strains of S. mutans. “In vitro data obtained in this study revealed that garlic extract could significantly inhibit the growth of MDR S. mutans at minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of 4-32 mg/ml.”
#3) 24695825Shetty/2013Cultures of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggrgatibacter actinomycetemcomitansLaboratory study
Key resultsThe study showed the significant inhibitory effect of garlic on oral pathogens, particularly P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans. In the study, garlic extracts did not show any bactericidal activity towards the organisms; however, it did show bacteriostatic activity towards the organisms.
Evidence Search (“Garlic”[Mesh] AND “Dental Caries”[Mesh]) (“garlic and toothbrush”) (“garlic and periodontal)
Comments on
The Evidence
The first study conducted was a double-blind randomized controlled parallel study consisting of 210 dental students. The students were divided into 6 different groups. Students used toothbrushes for 2 weeks, and the toothbrushes were tested for microbial levels. The students were then given new toothbrushes to use for another 2 weeks. After 2 weeks, the toothbrushes were submerged in the different solutions for 12 hours, and microbial levels were measured. Perhaps a longer time frame could provide a better indication and more reliable results. The second study was a laboratory study in which strains of S. mutans were isolated from 105 extracted carious teeth. Garlic was shown to be effective against the organisms; however, much of the experimentation was performed on agar plates and in test tubes. More extensive tests done in vivo could be useful. The third study was also a laboratory study. Like the second study, it showed promising results with garlic; however, much of the study was performed on culture plates and tubes. More extensive in vivo testing should be done in order to truly determine the anti-microbial effect of allicin on oral pathogens.
Applicability Allicin shows significant anti-microbial activity towards known carious bacteria. It may be useful as an effective anti-carious agent, however the lack of in vivo testing prevents it from being recommended for clinical use.
Specialty/Discipline (Public Health) (General Dentistry) (Periodontics)
Keywords Allicin, garlic, caries
ID# 3026
Date of submission: 04/04/2016spacer
E-mail hayesc4@livemail.uthscsa.edu
Author Carter Hayes
Co-author(s)
Co-author(s) e-mail
Faculty mentor/Co-author Georgiana S. Gross, MPH
Faculty mentor/Co-author e-mail Grossg@uthscsa.edu
Basic Science Rationale
(Mechanisms that may account for and/or explain the clinical question, i.e. is the answer to the clinical question consistent with basic biological, physical and/or behavioral science principles, laws and research?)
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