ORAL HEALTH EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE PROGRAM
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Title TiO2 Nanotubes Affect Osteoprogenitor Cell Differentiation and Proliferation
Clinical Question Do TiO2 nanotubes affect the differentiation and proliferation of osteoprogenitor cells, and if so, how?
Clinical Bottom Line Titanium nanotubes enhance the differentiation and proliferation of osteoblast-like cells and exhibit better biocompatibility than commercially pure titanium in vitro.
Best Evidence (you may view more info by clicking on the PubMed ID link)
PubMed ID Author / Year Patient Group Study type
(level of evidence)
#1) 23436766Minagar/2013Narrative Review
Key resultsTitania nano-tubes on biocompatible alloys can be altered by anodic oxidation. Characteristics such as high surface area, crystalline structure, contact angle, surface wall thickness, and diameter all affect the manner in which cells interact with nano-scale structures. More studies needed to find the optimum size, diameter, and length to maximize differentiation and proliferation of osteoprogenitor cells.
#2) 23554372Wang/2014in vitroLaboratory study
Key resultsTitanium nanotubes (TNTs) are comprised of a highly ordered, nano-porous surface layer. This in vitro study showed that TNTs exhibited a higher surface area, rougher surface, and enhanced hydrophilicity compared to commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti). Water contact angles were significantly lower for TNTs, surface energy increased significantly after synthesis of the nanotube layer, and confocal microscopy revealed greater spread extension and total cell count when compared to cp-Ti.
#3) 18496867Das/2009in vitroLaboratory study
Key resultsNanotubes improve osteoblast adhesion and spreading by creating anchorage for filopodia extensions. Student t-tests used to compare the mean spread on control titanium surfaces and nano-porous surfaces (p<.001) were statistically significant for nano-porous surfaces. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was higher at days 5 and 11 in culture. Morphology of the nanotube can induce early cellular differentiation and statistically significant proliferation when compared to a polished titanium surface controls.
Evidence Search (("titanium"[MeSH Terms] AND "osteoblasts"[MeSH Terms]) AND "nanotubes"[MeSH Terms]) AND "nanotubes/chemistry"[Mesh Terms]
Comments on
The Evidence
These articles represent controlled in vitro studies performed in a relatively new area of dentistry. Being the lowest level of evidence, these data suggest that increased surface area, crystalline structure, surface energy, surface wall thickness, and nanotube diameter are influential in enhancing cell differentiation and proliferation in vitro. Further studies are needed to verify the effect of nanotube science in vivo.
Applicability These studies are only representative of the biological mechanisms that may take place in the bony hard tissue of patients. As more research is conducted to expand on the knowledge present of titanium nano-structures, we will gain a better understanding of their interaction with living tissue.
Specialty/Discipline (General Dentistry) (Oral Surgery) (Periodontics) (Prosthodontics) (Restorative Dentistry)
Keywords Osseointegration, osteoblast, dental implant, nanotubes, TiO2, restorative dentistry, periodontics, oral and maxillofacial surgery
ID# 2940
Date of submission: 11/03/2015spacer
E-mail garrettp@uthscsa.edu
Author Phillip Garrett, DDS
Co-author(s)
Co-author(s) e-mail
Faculty mentor/Co-author Keith Hill, DDS
Faculty mentor/Co-author e-mail hillkv@uthscsa.edu
Basic Science Rationale
(Mechanisms that may account for and/or explain the clinical question, i.e. is the answer to the clinical question consistent with basic biological, physical and/or behavioral science principles, laws and research?)
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